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Look at the "vitality" in the holiday market | Policy "combination boxing" to boost the automobile consumption market

CCTV News:During the "Eleventh" holiday, the reporter visited various places and learned that both the new car sales market of new energy vehicles and the second-hand car trading market showed a rising trend. In addition, with the support of a number of favorable policies, consumer enthusiasm continues to rise.

This holiday, Mr. Zhou, who lives in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, bought a new energy vehicle worth 330,000 yuan, according to "the price of a single vehicle is 300,000 yuan — Mr. Zhou can get a subsidy of 6,000 yuan for the standard of subsidizing 6,000 yuan below 400,000 yuan.

During the "Eleventh" holiday, consumers in Dezhou, Shandong Province can enjoy a one-time subsidy ranging from 3,000 yuan to 6,000 yuan when purchasing new energy passenger cars. In addition, they are exempted from the purchase tax of 4.5% of the car price, the travel tax in 360 yuan, and the replacement subsidy of up to 6,000 yuan and the cash benefit of up to 20,000 yuan given by manufacturers, which makes many consumers feel excited.

Not only the new car market, this holiday, the second-hand car trading market is also stimulated by the policy, and the trading volume has risen linearly. The reporter visited the used car trading market in Huaxiang, Beijing, and learned that the transaction volume of car inspection and transfer has increased by 30%. On October 1 this year, the Ministry of Public Security and other departments issued a policy that when a registered automobile sales enterprise applies for the transfer registration of a small non-operating used car, the public security organ will implement separate endorsement management and issue a temporary license plate. For cities where automobile purchases are restricted, it is clear that used cars purchased by automobile sales enterprises and used for sales do not occupy the number plate index. At the same time, all regions strictly implement the policy of completely canceling the restrictions on the movement of used cars, and cancel the restrictions on the movement of small non-operating used cars that meet the national five emission standards nationwide (including the national key areas for air pollution prevention and control) to promote the free circulation of used cars and cross-regional operation of enterprises.

According to the data of China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, in 2022, the production and sales of new energy vehicles will reach 3.97 million and 3.86 million respectively in the first eight months, up by 120% and 110% respectively.

The national football team performed twice in 2 minutes: making a red card and shoveling a single knife! The commentary was amazed and the fans applauded.

At 2pm on 23rd, the China men’s soccer team visited Auckland to challenge New Zealand, which ranked 105th in the world. 0-0, the two teams drew a blank. The performance of the national football team is still qualified, with Lei Wu and Wei Shihao on the offensive end and Wei Zhen on the defensive end playing well. Especially in the 62 nd and 64 th minutes, two minutes of attack and defense won applause from the national football fans at the scene.

Two hours before the national football competition, the younger brother U24 lost the national football team 0-2 to New Zealand U22, but he couldn’t beat the other team. As a big brother, the national football team can’t afford to lose-if it loses, it will take four hours and two defeats, and the China men’s football team will even lose its head.

Lei Wu’s anti-aircraft guns.

Wei Shihao’s free kick is higher than that.

In the opening stage, the national football team is still the same, it is difficult to pass more than three feet in a row, and the scene is very passive. Except for Wei Shihao, the frontcourt attack lacks bright spots. After Yi Bian fought again, the national football team seized a mistake made by New Zealand and reversed the trend:

In the 63rd minute, New Zealand passed the ball and played with fire in the backcourt, and Lei Wu staged speed master to steal the ball before New Zealand captain Smith. Smith put Lei Wu down behind his back. Lei Wu, sitting on the ground, made a gesture of "penalty card", and the referee directly sent Smith off with a red card!

Lei Wu made Smith’s red card with his speed and agility, creating a situation of 11-10 for the national football team. China fans at the Intelligent Mountain Stadium burst into applause and cheers. Lei Wu’s performance was recognized by the fans.

Just 2 minutes later, New Zealand also made a quick counterattack and formed an excellent opportunity for 1V1! Fortunately, Wei Zhenguo, the national football defender, broke the shovel and made a wonderful steal from behind.

For Wei Zhen’s shovel, the New Zealand broadcaster commentator shouted: "wonderful, what a beautiful shovel break! What a tackle)!” Wei Zhen also high-fived his teammates to celebrate.

Wu Xi, captain of the national football team

For the national football team, this is a crucial defense: if Wei Zhen fouls, it is likely to be a red dot package, and the confidence and number advantage that the national football team has just established will be ruined in an instant. Fortunately, Wei Zhen’s tackle was clean and very uplifting!

Although China’s men’s soccer team is always criticized and ridiculed by fans, judging from these two minutes of attack and defense, the performance of the national football team is obviously better than that of New Zealand. Lei Wu swoops down and steals the ball from New Zealand captain Smith, who pulls down Lei Wu behind him and is sent off with a red card. In a blink of an eye, New Zealand’s fast break and Wei Zhen’s back tackle were textbook defense.

11 to 10 has become the key for the national football team to reverse the situation. Unfortunately, the fierce attack of the national football team failed to get a goal. China fans are not demanding, and 0-0 is acceptable. The national football fans at the scene also applauded the national football team …

Controversy! Jeff, the new captain of Guangdong Men’s Basketball Team, may make a new decision, and the reason is revealed!

Controversy! Jeff, the new captain of Guangdong Men’s Basketball Team, may make a new decision, and the reason is revealed!

The emergence of Jeff, the new captain of Guangdong Men’s Basketball Team, has caused some controversy. Some fans have doubts about whether he can be the captain. However, the management is firm about Jeff’s choice, and thinks that his leadership and team consciousness are enough to lead the team to success. Jeff himself also said that he would try harder and go all out to respond to the fans’ expectations. Jeff’s appointment as the new captain of Guangdong Men’s Basketball Team has undoubtedly aroused various voices among fans. The management of Guangdong Men’s Basketball Team firmly believes that Jeff is the best candidate, and they believe that Jeff’s leadership temperament and team consciousness are the key to the team’s success. On the court, he showed extraordinary dominance and leadership, as well as the ability to play a stabilizer role in the team.

In addition, he is always the leader of his teammates off the court and has established a close cooperative relationship for the team. The management believes that Jeff as the new captain is the best choice for Guangdong men’s basketball team to win the championship in the future. However, it is undeniable that some fans’ controversy about Jeff becoming the captain is also reasonable. Being a captain is not only about the performance of basketball skills, but also includes leadership, emotional management and tactical decision-making. For a top team like Guangdong Men’s Basketball Team, the captain’s responsibility and pressure are enormous. Some fans are worried about whether Jeff can keep calm at critical moments and how to adjust tactics and motivate players in adversity.

These concerns are reasonable to some extent, because the captain’s role is not only to celebrate the victory, but also to lead the team unswervingly when it is difficult. Jeff himself is full of determination and confidence to become the new captain. In an interview, he frankly knew that the fans had high expectations of him, but he also said that he would respond to these expectations with greater efforts and all-out efforts. He believes that becoming a captain is a new challenge and a great honor in his career. He said that he will work closely with the coaching staff, learn and improve his leadership ability, and lead the team towards the goal of championship. As the new captain of Guangdong Men’s Basketball Team, Jeff will face a series of advantages and challenges.

First of all, as a captain, he will have more voice and influence, be able to better communicate with coaches and management, and strive for better resources and support for the team. His leading position in the team will also make his teammates trust him more and be more willing to obey his command. However, the duties of the captain are also accompanied by great pressure and challenges. He needs to stand up when the team encounters difficulties, boost morale and lead the team out of the trough together. At the same time, he also needs to constantly improve his level on the court and become a model and example for the team. Looking ahead, the importance of Jeff as captain is self-evident. He will show his skills and leadership on the court, and he will also face the judgment of all parties.

However, no matter what challenges he faces, Xu Jie said that he would go all out and do his best to bring more honor and glory to the Guangdong men’s basketball team. Only time will tell whether Jeff can be the captain, but he has become an important symbol for fans and Guangdong men’s basketball team, symbolizing a new chapter and a new beginning. Let’s look forward to more brilliant achievements of Guangdong Men’s Basketball Team under his leadership.

Romano: Szoboszlai will cancel the contract for 70 million euros and may leave the team this summer.

Live on May 21st, Romano reported that the price of the termination clause of Red Bull midfielder Szoboszlai in Leipzig was 70 million euros.

Early this morning, Leipzig beat Bayern Munich 3-1. After the game, when asked about his potential transfer in the summer by German Sky Sports, Szoboszlai avoided answering. He directly said, "The next question …"

Romano said that Szoboszlai’s termination clause cost 70 million euros, and it is believed that the Hungarian international will leave the team this summer.

Szoboszlai, 22, made 44 appearances for Leipzig this season, contributing 9 goals and 13 assists.

(goblin killer)

Casemiro’s field data: 1 goal, 4 shots, 5 steals and 3 key passes.

Live on May 20 th, casemiro scored the only goal in this round of Premier League Manchester United’s 1-0 victory over Bournemouth. The following are his specific data in this field:

Competition time is 90 minutes.

1 goal

93 touches of the ball

74 passes and 59 successes.

Three key passes

Nine long passes and eight successes.

Four shots, two straight shots.

15 confrontations, 9 successes

Second clearance

Two interceptions

Five steals

Sofa score 8.5

(Chenpi is not orange)

The Clippers’ promotion probability is only 3%! Wei Shaohong scored 37 points to be himself: but he may not stay in the team next season?

37 points, 6 rebounds and 4 assists, 17 of 29 shots and 3 of 6 of 3 points, which may be Wei Shao’s best game this season. He was regarded as a "cancer" in the Lakers, and finally found himself in the Clippers. However, the Clippers, who lacked peppers, still lost, with a total score of 1-3, and were on the verge of elimination.FiveThirtyEight, a well-known data website, shows that the Clippers have only 3% chance to advance to the next round.

I was shouted "Don’t vote" by Lakers fans.

When was Wei Shao’s most heartfelt scene in the Lakers? There should be many answers. The home game against Knicks may be one of them. In the fourth quarter, the Lakers led by 6 points, and Monk passed the ball to Wei Shao in the bottom corner. Wei Shao was preparing to shoot, and the Lakers home fans actually shouted "No!" Wei Shao hesitated for a while, but he made a move. The three-pointer missed, and the heavy eyebrows made up the ball.

That three-pointer was really not a good time to shoot, but the shouts of the fans shook Wei Shao’s confidence. That was the root of his former MVP. After joining the Lakers, Wei Shao was asked to change, and his biggest change was that his confidence was gradually disappearing.

The Clippers provided a stage for him, and he became the starting point guard of a team with championship ambitions. The Clippers signed Wei Shao in order to let him do what others in the team can’t do: break through the basket and create easy shots for teammates.

In the 11 games between Wei Shao’s joining and George’s injury, the Clippers were 5 wins and 6 losses, but in the last 6 regular season games, they won 5 games. With leonard’s two consecutive injuries, Wei Shao became his old self again. G4 may be the best game Wei Shao played for the two teams in LA. His explosiveness showed once again, and his defensive strength was also always online. He also made three three-pointers and did not hesitate to shoot.

The Clippers can offer limited salary for renewal.

Wei Shao himself once said how wonderful it is to stay where he wants to stay. This is in sharp contrast to last season. At that time, he publicly denied that Lakers teammates let him be himself on the court. The Clippers are more tolerant of Wei Shao and let Wei Shao play in a familiar way.

However, such beauty will not last forever. Whether or not the Capsicum can make a comeback in this year’s playoffs, they are still the core of the Clippers. Wei Shao will turn 35 next season, and his athletic ability will not last forever. No matter how confident he is, his jump shot will not become a stable offensive weapon.

Major General Wei became a free agent during the offseason.If the new labor terms come into effect before next season, the Clippers, which exceed the luxury tax threshold of $17.5 million, will not be able to provide Wei Shao with a salary of 120% more than the veteran’s basic salary. Therefore, the future of both sides is full of uncertainty.

If Wei Shao is forced by home fans to dare not shoot, his prospects in the NBA are undoubtedly dark. After a nightmare in the Lakers, this version of Wei Shao seems to have disappeared forever. For Wei Shao, he needs a team that can support him, give him room to play and trust his defense. For example, the wizards of the past, and now the Clippers. It is predicted that Wei Shao should at least get a full middle-class contract. As long as Wei Shao stays in a state, even if the clippers can’t give it, there will be a family who is willing to pay.

Not all stars can grow old gracefully. This night, Wei Shao became Wei Shao again, even if it was only a short-lived glory, it was enough to move people.

ChatGPT will have self-awareness in two or three years. How to prevent it from threatening human beings? Zhou Hongyi said so.

"The development of ChatGPT is not a matter of competition among several Internet companies, but determines whether China can accumulate this technology in the next industrial revolution." Zhou Hongyi, member of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and founder of 360 Group, told the Times Weekly reporter.

Zhou Hongyi has been elected as a member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference Committee for two consecutive years, and "safety" has always been the key word of his proposal. Recently, the great breakthrough of ChatGPT has caused extensive discussion. Zhou Hongyi has talked openly about the development prospect of ChatGPT more than once, and also expressed his concern about the safety of artificial intelligence.

In Zhou Hongyi’s view, ChatGPT or Big Language Model is a milestone in the development of artificial intelligence. It is the starting point of general artificial intelligence and the turning point of strong artificial intelligence, so ChatGPT will bring an industrial revolution driven by strong artificial intelligence or general artificial intelligence.

ChatGPT is not only an enhanced version of search engine, but also more than a chat robot. It will reshape all digital applications and industries through the artificial intelligence services provided by SaaS. Zhou Hongyi said, "In this field, we can catch up."

At the National People’s Congress this year, Zhou Hongyi submitted a proposal, calling on China to catch up with the great leap of artificial intelligence big model technology represented by ChatGPT. People should pay more attention to the innovation mode behind technological breakthrough while paying attention to technological innovation.

Zhou Hongyi, member of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and founder of 360 Group.

Promote the innovation and development of artificial intelligence big model technology

ChatGPT has caused a global heated discussion. This year, Zhou Hongyi proposed a large-scale artificial intelligence model technology represented by ChatGPT.

"We must find the law of industrial development in the research process." Zhou Hongyi said, for example, why is ChatGPT successful in the United States? Why did Americans take the lead in making it? Why can OpenAI and Microsoft cooperate? "Understanding these problems can promote relevant departments to formulate policy guidance conducive to the birth of China version of ChatGPT and promote the integration of universities, scientific research institutions and industrial companies in China." Zhou Hongyi said.

"We can’t just see how high its big model parameters are." Zhou Hongyi emphasized that the most important thing is to maintain a good and open culture of cooperation. In his proposal, Zhou Hongyi summed up three key factors for the success of ChatGPT-firstly, the "Microsoft +OpenAI" collaborative mode of production, research and research, secondly, the open innovation mode based on open source and crowdsourcing, and finally, the ecological innovation mode centered on the general big model.

Source: the creativity of the worm

Zhou Hongyi suggested that it is necessary to establish a collaborative innovation model of "large-scale scientific and technological enterprises+key scientific research institutions", build China’s "Microsoft +Open AI" combination, and lead the big model technology research; From the height of building a national strategic scientific and technological force, we should screen production and research institutions with good technical foundation, form an industrial synergy combination with complementary advantages, and give full play to the research advantages of scientific research institutions in key core technologies; At the same time, we will give full play to the advantages of large-scale scientific and technological enterprises in productization, engineering, scene, commercialization and data, and become the leading leader in tackling key problems and application of large-scale model technology.

He also proposed to support the establishment of a number of long-term open source projects of national artificial intelligence models to create an open and innovative ecosystem of open source crowdsourcing. Zhou Hongyi believes that the artificial intelligence big model should not be an advanced technology monopolized by a few companies, but should give full play to its industrial and social value.

Focusing on how to promote the technological innovation and development of artificial intelligence big model, Zhou Hongyi proposed to set up a number of national long-term projects in an open source mode for multiple technical routes, with "large-scale scientific and technological enterprises+key scientific research institutions" as the leader, and guide universities, scientific research institutions and innovative enterprises to form innovative ecological groups of multiple technical routes through open source, cooperation, crowdsourcing and ecological innovation modes. On the one hand, it can reduce the risk caused by the wrong choice of technical route, on the other hand, it can also avoid the monopoly of technological achievements in the hands of a few institutions and promote greater scientific and technological innovation and industrial development.

Not developing is the biggest insecurity.

ChatGPT drives a wave of entrepreneurial craze. Wang Huiwen, the co-founder of Meituan, Zhou Bowen, the former chairman of JD.COM Technical Committee, and Wang Xiaochuan, the former Sogou CEO, successively announced their retirement and entered this frontier field.

Technology giants have returned to the rivers and lakes, and Internet giants such as Ali, Tencent, Baidu and Byte have made statements one after another, which will increase investment in artificial intelligence. Under the craze, it is only a matter of time before China version of artificial intelligence language model and ChatGPT-like products appear.

OpenAI took the lead in developing ChatGPT. What did it do right?

Zhou Hongyi believes that OpenAI uses a large number of open source algorithms and papers, skillfully combines various open source achievements, and cooperates with Microsoft to solve the problems of engineering, computing power, data, product experience and business model. Secondly, like Apple’s App Store ecosystem, OpenAI cultivates vertical applications based on ChatGPT. In addition, user traffic is also very important, attracting users to use it, and at the same time, it can also feed and debug large language models based on manual tagging reinforcement learning. Finally, OpenAI has a long-term spirit and a pattern to make universal artificial intelligence innovations that change human beings.

In Zhou Hongyi’s view, China Internet companies have strong engineering ability and strong technology landing ability. "Now, ChatGPT has made a sample, based on open source technology, and there are no insurmountable obstacles. The rest is a matter of time." Zhou Hongyi firmly believes that "with the support of the state’s encouraging policies, China can achieve a better level of follow-up in two or three years."

The big model of artificial intelligence language has a high entry threshold, which is mainly reflected in both technology and capital.

Citic jiantou research report pointed out that the evolution of Transformer in network structure has brought about the improvement of parameters and model layers, which has caused the qualitative change of generative AI technical ability; At the same time, the advantage of parallelization allows it to train on a larger data set, which also promotes the development of pre-training models such as GPT.

As for why ChatGPT can answer questions, Zhou Hongyi told Times Weekly that the training materials for ChatGPT are very important. He pointed out that people mistakenly thought that since robots are chatting with people, they should learn chat materials. In fact, the chat materials generated by social tools have low knowledge content.

"When we chat, no one is talking about knowledge, but they are all lifting each other’s poles. There are many wisecracks and nonsense words." He explained that the chat robot trained in this way is more than "artificial mental retardation" or "artificial leverage", and the dialogue is illogical.

ChatGPT avoids this kind of corpus, just as a person is not necessarily good at expressing, but he is full of poetry and books, expressing elegance and logic, and everyone is willing to chat with such people. Zhou Hongyi emphasized that it is very important to feed ChatGPT with high-quality corpus.

Tuchong creativity

Artificial intelligence technology promotes social progress and also hides risks.

Zhou Hongyi is worried that if ChatGPT is allowed to input corpus without limitation, and get knowledge of searching and browsing the Internet at will, will the self-conscious GPT have the idea of being hostile to human beings after watching movies like Terminator?

After consciousness, ChatGPT may evolve into "eyes", "ears", "hands" and "feet" in the second step. At present, GPT has only "brain". If you add "eyes" and "ears", you can understand all kinds of images and videos of human beings and understand all kinds of audio, knowledge storage will advance by leaps and bounds, and the level of intelligence will also be greatly improved.

In the future, when ChatGPT accesses the API of the Internet and enters the era of the Internet of Everything, it is undoubtedly equivalent to having "hands" and "feet" and indirectly having the ability to control the world. By then, ChatGPT can not only buy air tickets on the webpage, but also take taxis, order takeout, and even manipulate various IoT devices through the webpage.

Finally, ChatGPT may be able to evolve itself. At present, ChatGPT can only write some simple codes. One day, when its code ability is improved, can it automatically look up its own code, correct the upgraded code, or even recompile a new version? If so, it will have the ability of self-learning and evolution, and realize the prospect of robot manufacturing robots.

Zhou Hongyi insists that the biggest insecurity is not developing artificial intelligence. "Whether humans will therefore go into destruction remains to be seen. However, we can’t stop developing technology, but know where the bottom line and boundary of technology are, so as to regulate the development of technology in the right direction. " Zhou Hongyi said.

When two siri start to communicate, do they talk to each other?

Produced by Tiger Sniffing Technology Group

Author | Qi Jian

Editor | Chen Yifan

Head picture | |FlagStudio

"One morning, your AI assistant sent me an interview invitation, so I asked my AI assistant to handle it. The latter thing was done by two AI systems. After many rounds of dialogue between them, the date was finalized and the conference room was booked. There was no human participation in the whole process. "

This is Michael Wooldridge’s picture of the future. He is a British AI scientist and is currently a professor of computer science at Oxford University.

What will happen to our society when artificial intelligence can communicate with each other?

During the one-hour conversation, woodridge was very interested in this topic. He is one of the top scholars in the world in the research of multi-agent systems, and "collaboration between AI" is his key research direction.

In Wooldridge’s view, although artificial intelligence has become more and more like human beings and even surpassed human beings in some fields, we still have a long way to go from real artificial intelligence, whether it is AlphaGO, which defeated human beings, or ChatGPT, which answered like a stream.

When most people are immersed in the phenomenal innovation created by OpenAI, Wooldridge appears much calmer. ChatGPT shows the power of neural network, but also shows its bottleneck-it can’t solve the huge power consumption and computing power problem, and the unsolvable AI "black box" problem."Although the deep neural network can often answer our questions perfectly, we don’t really understand why it answers like this."

AI that surpasses human beings is often called "strong artificial intelligence", while AI with universal human intelligence level is called Artificial general intelligence (AGI).Wooldridge described AGI in his book "The Complete Biography of Artificial Intelligence": AGI is roughly equivalent to a computer with all the intellectual abilities possessed by an ordinary person, including the abilities of using natural language to communicate, solve problems, reason and perceive the environment, and it is at the same or higher level of intelligence as an ordinary person. The literature about AGI usually does not involve self-consciousness or self-consciousness, so AGI is considered as a weak version of weak artificial intelligence.

However, the "weak" AGI is far from the contemporary artificial intelligence research.

"ChatGPT is a successful AI product. It is very good at tasks involving language, but that’s all. We still have a long way to go from AGI. " In a conversation with Tiger Sniff, woodridge said that deep learning enables us to build some AI programs that were unimaginable a few years ago. However, these AI programs that have made extraordinary achievements are far from the magic to push AI forward towards grand dreams, and they are not the answer to the current development problems of AGI.

Michael Wooldridge is a leading figure in the field of international artificial intelligence. He is currently the dean of the School of Computer Science of Oxford University, and has devoted himself to artificial intelligence research for more than 30 years. He served as the chairman of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) from 2015 to 2017 (which is one of the top conferences in the field of artificial intelligence), and was awarded the highest honor in the British computer field-the Lovelace Medal in 2020, which is regarded as one of the three influential scholars in the British computer field.

ChatGPT is not the answer to building AGI.

Before the appearance of ChatGPT, most people thought that general artificial intelligence was very far away. In a book entitled "Intelligent Architecture" published in 2018, 23 experts in the field of AI were investigated. When answering "Which year has a 50% chance to realize general artificial intelligence", Google Engineering Director Ray Kurzweil thought it was 2029, while the time given by iRobot co-founder Rodney Brooks was 2200. The average time point predicted by all the 18 experts who answered this question is 2099.

However, in 2022, Elon Musk also expressed his views on realizing AGI in 2029. He said on Twitter, "2029 feels like a pivotal year. I’d be surprised if we don’t have AGI by then. (I feel that 2029 is a crucial year. I would be surprised if we didn’t have AGI then) "

In this regard, Gary Marcus, a well-known AI scholar, put forward five criteria to test whether AGI is realized, including: understanding movies, reading novels, being a chef, reliably carrying more than 10,000 lines of bug-free code according to natural language specifications or through interaction with non-professional users, and arbitrarily extracting proofs from mathematical literature written in natural language and converting them into symbol forms suitable for symbol verification.

Now it seems that the general big model represented by ChatGPT seems to have taken a big step towards AGI. The task of reading novels and movies seems to be just around the corner. In this regard, Professor Michael Wooldridge believes that at present, it is still difficult for human beings to achieve AGI in 2029.

Tiger sniffing: AI experts like AlphaGo have defeated human beings, but their abilities have great limitations in practical application. Today’s general big model seems to be breaking this situation. What do you think of the future development of expert AI and AGI?

Michael Wooldridge:Symbolic artificial intelligence is a mode of early artificial intelligence, that is, assuming that "intelligence" is a question about "knowledge", if you want an intelligent system, you just need to give it enough knowledge.

This model is equivalent to modeling people’s "thinking", which led the development of artificial intelligence from 1950s to the end of 1980s, and eventually evolved into an "expert system". If you want the artificial intelligence system to do something, such as translating English into Chinese, you need to master the professional knowledge of human translators first, and then use the programming language to transfer this knowledge to the computer.

This method has great limitations,He can’t solve the problem related to "perception". Perception refers to your ability to understand the world around you and explain things around you.For example, I am looking at the computer screen now. There is a bookshelf and a lamp next to me. My human intelligence can understand these things and environments, and can also describe them. However, it is very difficult to get the computer to carry out this process. This is the limitation of symbolic artificial intelligence, which performs well on the problem of knowledge accumulation, but not well on the problem of understanding.

AI recognizes cats as dogs.

Another method is artificial intelligence based on mental model. If you look at the animal’s brain or nervous system under a microscope, you will find a large number of neurons interconnected. Inspired by this huge network and neural structure, researchers tried to model the structure in the animal brain and designed a neural network similar to the animal brain. In this process, we are not modeling thinking, but modeling the brain.

Symbolic artificial intelligence of "modeling thinking" and neural network of "modeling brain" are two main artificial intelligence modes. With the support of today’s big data and computing power, the development speed of neural network is faster, and ChatGPT of OpenAI is a typical example of neural network.

The success of ChatGPT has further enhanced people’s expectations for deep neural networks, and some people even think that AGI is coming. Indeed, AGI is the goal of many artificial intelligence researchers, but I think we still have a long way to go.Although ChatGPT has a strong general ability when it comes to language issues, it is not AGI, it does not exist in the real world, and it cannot understand our world.

For example, if you start a conversation with ChatGPT now, you will go on vacation after saying one sentence. When you come back from a week’s trip, ChatGPT is still waiting patiently for you to enter the next content. It won’t realize that time has passed or what changes have taken place in the world.

Tiger Sniff: Do you think the prediction of realizing AGI in 2029 will come true?

Michael Wooldridge:Although ChatGPT can be regarded as a part of general AI to some extent, it is not the answer to building AGI. It is just a software combination that is built and optimized to perform a specific, narrow-minded task. We need more research and technological progress to realize AGI.

I am skeptical about the idea of realizing AGI in 2029. The basis of human intelligence is "being able to live in the material world and social world". For example, I can feel my coffee cup with my hands, I can have breakfast, and I can interact with anyone. But unfortunately, AI not only can’t do this, but also can’t understand the meaning of any of them. AGI has a long way to go before AI can perceive the real world.

Although the computer’s perception and understanding ability is limited, it still learns from experience and becomes an assistant to human decision-making. At present, as long as AI can solve problems like a "human assistant", what’s the point of arguing whether a computer system can "perceive and understand"?

We will eventually see a world built entirely by AI.

From driverless cars to face recognition cameras, from AI painting and AI digital people to AI writing codes and papers, it won’t take long. As long as it involves technical fields, whether it is education, science, industry, medical care or art, every industry will see the figure of artificial intelligence.

When talking about whether ChatGPT is often used, Professor Wooldridge said that ChatGPT is part of his research, so it will definitely be used frequently. However, in the process of using it, he found that ChatGPT is really a good helper for basic work and can save a lot of time in many repetitive tasks.

Tiger Sniff: Do you use ChatGPT at work? What do you think of ChatGPT Plus’s subscription mode?

Michael Wooldridge:I often use ChatGPT. I think in the next few years, ChatGPT and the general macro model may emerge thousands of different uses, and even gradually become general tools, just like web browsers and email clients.

I am also a subscriber of ChatGPT Plus. But for the price of $25, I think different people have different opinions. Every user will know whether ChatGPT is suitable for them and whether it is necessary to pay for the enhanced version only after trying it in person. For some people, they may just find it interesting, but they prefer to do things by themselves at work. For me, I find it very useful and can handle a lot of repetitive desk work. However, at present, I regard it more as part of my research.

Tiger sniffing: A new PaaS business model with big model capability as the core is being formed in today’s AI market. OpenAI’s GPT-3 gave birth to Jasper, while ChatGPT attracted Buzzfeed. Do you think a new AI ecosystem will be formed around the general big model?

Michael Wooldridge:ChatGPT has a lot of innovations at the application level, and it may soon usher in a "big explosion" of creativity.I think in a year or two, ChatGPT and similar applications will land on a large scale.Complete simple repetitive copywriting work such as text proofreading, sentence polishing, induction and summary in commercial software.

In addition, in multimodal artificial intelligence, we may see more new application scenarios. For example, a large language model combined with image recognition and image generation may play a role in the AR field. Based on the understanding of video content of large model, AI can be used to quickly generate summaries for videos and TV dramas. However, the commercialization of multimodal scenes may take some time.But we will eventually see all kinds of content generated by AI, even virtual worlds created entirely by AI.

Tiger Sniff: What conditions do you think are needed to build a company like OpenAI from scratch?

Michael Wooldridge:I think it is very difficult to start a company like OpenAI from scratch. First of all, you need huge computing resources, purchase tens of thousands of expensive top-level GPUs, and set up a supercomputer dedicated to AI. The electricity bill alone may be costly. You can also choose cloud services, but the current price of cloud computing is not cheap. Therefore, it may cost millions of dollars to train AI every time, and it needs to run for several months or even longer.

In addition, a huge amount of data is needed, which may be the data of the whole internet. How to obtain these data is also a difficult problem. Data and computing power are only the foundation, and more importantly, it is necessary to gather a group of highly sophisticated AI R&D talents.

Tiger Sniff: Which company is more powerful in AI research and development? What do you think of the technical differences between countries in AI research and development?

Michael Wooldridge:The players on this track may include internet companies, research institutions, and perhaps the government, but they are not public. At present, there are not many players who have publicly announced that they have the strength of big models, and even one hand can count them. Large technology companies are currently developing their own large-scale language models, and their technologies are relatively advanced.

So I don’t want to judge who is stronger,I don’t think there is obvious comparability between the models. The difference between them mainly lies in the rhythm of entering the market and the number of users.OpenAI’s technology is not necessarily the most advanced, but they are one year ahead in marketization, and this year’s advantage has accumulated hundreds of millions of users for him, which also makes him far ahead in user data feedback.

At present, the United States has always dominated the field of artificial intelligence. Whether it is Google or Microsoft, or even DeepMind, which was founded in the United Kingdom, now belongs to the American Alphabet (Google’s parent company).

However, in the past 40 years, China’s development in the field of AI has also been quite rapid.In the AAAI Conference (american association for artificial intelligence Conference) in 1980, there was only one paper from Hongkong, China.But today, the number of papers from China is equivalent to that from the United States.

Of course, Britain also has excellent artificial intelligence teams, but we don’t have the scale of China. We are a relatively small country, but we definitely have a world-leading research team.

This is an interesting era, and many countries have strong artificial intelligence teams.

Deep learning has entered a bottleneck.

When people discuss whether ChatGPT can replace search engines, many people think that ChatGPT’s data only covers before 2021, so it can’t get real-time data, so it can’t be competent for search tasks. But some people think that,In fact, the content of our daily search is, to a large extent, the existing knowledge before 2021. Even if the amount of data generated after that is large, the actual use demand is not high.

In fact, the amount of data used by ChatGPT is very large. Its predecessor GPT-2 model is pre-trained on 40GB of text data, while GPT-3 model is pre-trained on 45TB of text data. These pre-training data sets include various types of texts, such as news articles, novels, social media posts, etc. The large model can learn language knowledge in different fields and styles. Many practices have proved that ChatGPT is still a "doctor" who knows astronomy above and geography below, even with data before 2021.

This has also caused people to worry about the data of large-scale model training. When we want to train a larger model than ChatGPT, is the data of our world enough?futureWill the Internet be flooded with data generated by AI, thus forming a data "snake" in the process of AI training?

Ouroborosaurus is considered as "meaning infinity"

Tiger sniffing: You mentioned in your book that neural network is the most dazzling technology in machine learning. Nowadays, neural network leads us to keep moving forward in algorithms, data, especially computing power. With the progress of technology, have you seen the bottleneck of neural network development?

Michael Wooldridge:I think neural networks are facing three main challenges at present. The first is data. Tools like ChatGPT are built from a large number of corpus data, many of which come from the Internet. If you want to build a system 10 times larger than ChatGPT, you may need 10 times the amount of data.But is there so much data in our world? Where do these data come from? How to create these data?

For example, when we train a large language model, we have a lot of English data and Chinese data. However, when we want to train small languages, for example, in a small country with a population of less than 1 million like Iceland, their language data is much smaller, which will lead to the problem of insufficient data.

At the same time, when such a powerful generative AI as ChatGPT is applied on a large scale, a worrying phenomenon may occur. A lot of data on the Internet in the future may be generated by AI.When we need to use Internet data to train the next generation of AI tools, we may use data created by AI.

The next question is about computing power. If you want to train a system that is 10 times bigger than ChatGPT, you need 10 times of computing power resources.In the process of training and use, it will consume a lot of energy and produce a lot of carbon dioxide.This is also a widespread concern.

The third major challenge involves scientific progress, and we need basic scientific progress to promote the development of this technology.Just increasing data and computing resources can really push us further in the research and development of artificial intelligence, but this is not as good as the progress brought by scientific innovation. Just like learning to use fire or inventing a computer, we can really make a qualitative leap in human progress. In terms of scientific innovation, the main challenge facing deep learning in the future is how to develop more efficient neural networks.

In addition to the above three challenges, AI needs to be "interpretable". At present, human beings can’t fully understand the logic behind neural networks, and the calculation process of many problems is hidden in the "black box" of AI.Although neural networks have been able to give good answers, we don’t really understand why they give these answers.This not only hinders the research and development of neural networks, but also makes it impossible for humans to fully believe the answers provided by AI. This also includes the robustness of AI, and to use AI in this way, we need to ensure that the neural network will not collapse and get out of control in an unpredictable way.

Although the development bottleneck is in front of us, I don’t think we will see the subversion of neural networks in the short term.We don’t even know how it works yet, so it is still far from subversion.But I don’t think neural network is the answer of artificial intelligence. I think it is only one component of "complete artificial intelligence", and there must be other components, but we don’t know what they are yet.

Tiger sniffing: If computing power is one of the important factors in the development of AI, what innovative research have you seen in the research and development of AI chips?

Michael Wooldridge:Computing power is likely to be a bottleneck in the development of AI technology in the future. The energy efficiency ratio of the human brain is very high. The power of the human brain when thinking is only 20W, which is equivalent to the energy consumption of a light bulb. Compared with computers, such energy consumption can be said to be minimal.

There is a huge natural gap between AI system and natural intelligence, which needs a lot of computing power and data resources. Humans can learn more efficiently,But this "light bulb" of human beings is always only 20W, which is not a very bright light bulb.

Therefore, the challenge we face is how to make neural networks and machine learning technologies (such as ChatGPT) more efficient. At present, no matter from the point of view of software or hardware, we don’t know how to make neural network as efficient as human brain in learning, and there is still a long way to go in this regard.

When the system talks to the system directly.

Multi-agent system is an important branch of AI field, which refers to a system composed of multiple agents. These agents can interact, cooperate or compete with each other to achieve a certain goal. In multi-agent system, each agent has its own knowledge, ability and behavior, and can complete the task by communicating and cooperating with other agents.

Multi-agent system has applications in many fields, such as robot control, intelligent transportation system, power system management and so on. Its advantage is that it can realize distributed decision-making and task allocation, and improve the efficiency and robustness of the system.

Nowadays, with the blessing of AI big model, multi-agent systems and LLM in many scenarios can try to combine applications, thus greatly expanding the boundaries of AI capabilities.

Tiger sniffing: What are the points that can be combined with the AI big model and multi-agent system of the current fire?

Michael Wooldridge:My research focuses on "what happens when artificial intelligence systems communicate with each other". Most people have smartphones and AI assistants for smartphones, such as Siri, Alexa or Cortana, which we call "agents".

For example, when I want to reserve a seat in a restaurant, I will call the restaurant directly. But in the near future, Siri or other intelligent assistants can help me complete this task. Siri will call the restaurant and make a reservation on my behalf. And the idea of multi-agent system is,Why can’t Siri communicate directly with another Siri?Why not let these AI programs communicate with each other? Multi-agent system focuses on the problems involved when these AI programs communicate with each other.

The combination of multi-agent system and large model is the project we are studying. In my opinion, there is a very interesting work to be done in building a multi-agent+large language model. Can we gain higher intelligence by making large language models communicate with each other? I think this is a very interesting challenge.

For example, we need to make an appointment for a meeting now. You and I both use Siri to communicate, but you like meetings in the morning and I like meetings in the afternoon.When there is a dispute between us, how can Siri, representing you and me, work together to solve this problem?Will they negotiate? When AI not only talks to people, but also talks to other AI systems, many new problems will arise. This is the field I am studying, and I believe that multi-agent system is the future direction.

Another interesting question about multi-agents and large language models is, if AI systems only communicate with each other, do they not need human language? Can we design more effective languages for these AI systems?

However, this will lead to other problems, and we need to formulate rules for the exchange of these agents and AI programs.How should human beings?Managing an artificial intelligence society composed of AI?

Siri’s question and answer

AI can’t go to jail instead of human beings.

Michael Faraday, a British scientist, invented the electric motor in 1831, and he didn’t expect the electric chair as a torture device. Karl Benz, who obtained the automobile patent in 1886, could not have predicted that his invention would cause millions of deaths in the next century. Artificial intelligence is a universal technology: its application is only limited by our imagination.

While artificial intelligence is developing by leaps and bounds, we also need to pay attention to the potential risks and challenges that artificial intelligence may bring, such as data privacy and job loss. Therefore, while promoting the development of artificial intelligence technology, we also need to carefully consider its social and ethical impact and take corresponding measures.

If we can really build AI with human intelligence and ability, should they be regarded as equal to human beings? Should they have their own rights and freedoms? These problems need our serious consideration and discussion.

Tiger sniffing: The Chinese Internet has an interesting point: "AI can never engage in accounting or auditing. Because AI can’t go to jail. " AIGC also has such problems in copyright. AI can easily copy the painting and writing styles of human beings, and at the same time, the creation made by human beings using AI also has the problem of unclear ownership. So what do you think of the legal and moral risks of artificial intelligence?

Michael Wooldridge:The idea that AI can’t go to jail is wonderful. Some people think that AI can be their "moral agent" and be responsible for their actions. However, this idea obviously misinterprets the definition of "right and wrong" by human beings. Instead of thinking about how to create "morally responsible" AI, we should study AI in a responsible way.

AI itself cannot be responsible. Once something goes wrong with AI, those who own AI, build AI and deploy AI will be responsible. If the AI they use violates the law, or they use AI for crimes, then it must be human beings who should be sent to prison.

In addition, ChatGPT needs to strengthen supervision in privacy protection. If ChatGPT has collected information about the whole Internet, then he must have read information about each of us. For example, my social media, my books, my papers, comments made by others on social media, and even deleted information. AI may also be able to paint a portrait of everyone based on this information, thus further infringing or hurting our privacy.

At present, there are a lot of legal discussions about artificial intelligence, not just for ChatGPT. The legal issues of artificial intelligence have always existed and become increasingly important, but at present, all sectors of society are still discussing and exploring this.

I think ChatGPT or other AI technologies will become more and more common in the next few years. However, I also think we need to use it carefully to ensure that we will not lose key human skills, such as reading and writing. AI can undoubtedly help human beings to improve production efficiency and quality of life, but it cannot completely replace human thinking and creativity.

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