标签归档 上海贵族宝贝龙凤楼

On the first day of pre-sale, "Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Bright Stars", which set a record for Chinese movies at the box office, was refunded by more than 1 million people or was caused by mistakes i

According to the data of the ticketing platform, as of December 16, the number of refunds for "Twinkle, Twinkle and Bright Stars" exceeded 1 million, and the average refund rate of the two platforms was 18.1%.

Usually, the film refund rate is generally 2% to 8%, and some netizens think that the pre-sale box office of the film is "filled with water". In this regard, some netizens in the official Douban group of "Twinkle, Twinkle and Bright Stars" analyzed that the extremely high refund rate was caused by the mistakes of the theater and the film.

Twinkle, twinkle, twinkle, bright stars is a fantasy romantic film directed by Chen Xiaoming and Zhang Pan, written by Zhang Pan, Duan Yule, Wang Yichao and Chen Xiaoming, starring Qu Chuxiao and Karlina, and starring Jinna and Jiang Yunlin. The film was created by the original team of the same name online drama, and it was scheduled to be released in major theaters across the country on December 30, 2023. And open the pre-sale on December 5.

The online drama "Twinkle, Twinkle, Bright Stars" was launched in iQiyi in January 2022. According to Yunhe data, the average effective broadcast of each episode during the hot broadcast period exceeded 19.95 million, making it the most popular drama in 2022.

The movie Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Stars, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle On December 6th, the pre-sale box office of "Twinkle, Twinkle, Twinkle, Bright Stars" exceeded 100 million 23 days before its release. As of December 17th, the total pre-sale box office of Twinkle, Twinkle and Bright Stars has exceeded 258 million yuan.

This article comes from: Hot Express

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"Football Manager 2024" homeless evaluation 8.4 points this damn and wonderful football.

At one o’clock in the morning, I took my eyes off the screen at the end of the game.

The coke can creaked when I pinched it.

"Buy clique, eat kickbacks, no tactics, substitution suicide; One will be unable to exhaust the three armies, so please give me a class, Tenghage. "

I opened "Football Manager 2024", which is a completely different world line-Manchester United is no longer the fish-eating team that was slaughtered by others, but once again embarked on the journey of triple crown.

This time, the official will also use the "parallel world" model as a propaganda point, but in fact it is to start a season without initial transfer.

The reason why "Football Manager" can make players fondle it, not only because it brings a parallel football world, so that you can make up for those regrets in reality, but also because it can help you become the uncompromising supreme leader of the team and make the players who are already millionaires bow to you. And you are in charge of their life and death: criticism, fines, decentralization of the reserve team, immediate dismissal, as long as you see them unhappy, then the game can satisfy you.

Of course, Football Manager can do more than that. It can satisfy almost all your wishes for the football world. Its player database is accurate to amateur leagues that ordinary people can participate in. The complexity of tactics allows you to accurately reproduce the concept of real football masters, and the freedom of operation gives you the possibility of doing everything in detail, and also allows you to entrust AI with full responsibility.

It can be said that whether you are a fan or not, Football Manager will gradually make you feel the charm of the whole football world.

Damn football, football is wonderful.

Compared with the previous generation’s minor repairs, this "Football Manager 2024" has made many fruitful changes. After about 50 hours of exploration, I think the most important adjustment in this work is the upgrade of the positioning ball system.

In fact, no matter corner kicks, free kicks or foul balls, they only account for a small part in football matches. Many times, it is difficult for you to see the team score goals directly with them.

But that doesn’t mean the set-pieces aren’t important. It is a unique part of tactics, which can directly create opportunities beyond defense and is also a magic weapon to defeat the strong with the weak.

Whenever I talk about the famous corner kick, I always think of the Champions League final between Manchester United and Bayern Munich at Camp Nou in 1999.

Dozens of seconds ago, Manchester United just equalized the score with a close-range shot, and in the subsequent corner kick, Beckham scored a long pass with precise guidance, Sheringham headed the ferry in front, and Ole Gunnar Solskjaer, who was ambushed later, succeeded in overtaking at the last stoppage time.

At that time, Johansson, the president of the Football Association, was ready to present the Big Ear Cup to the Germans. However, when he walked out of the player’s aisle, he was shocked: "Why are the winning teams crying, while the losing team is dancing?"

It was this scene that Sir Alex Ferguson witnessed that led to the famous saying "Football, bloody hell".

This is the charm of the positioning ball, which has the power to create miracles in a moment. Now in Football Manager 2024, you finally have a chance to create a unique set of set-pieces tactics.

The game will provide complete guidance. You only need to answer a few questions briefly, and the coaching staff can help you tailor a set of appropriate corner kick tactics. After that, you can adjust each player’s position and responsibilities in detail.

You can let the air bully in the team attack the middle road, as long as you reach the ball, it will pose a fatal threat, but it will also be surrounded by heavy troops on the opposite side; If you send him to the near post or the far post, you can disperse the enemy’s defensive forces, but it will be easier for the goalkeeper to catch the ball or give the opposing players more reaction time.

Therefore, you need to let many attacking players take care of each other. Some people are responsible for pushing forward to distract the enemy, some people ambush in situ to try to head the ferry, some people meet at the top of the restricted area to fight for the second point, and some people secretly ambush a fatal blow. Only in this way can we find a chance in the well-defended attack zone 3.

Actual combat effect

Almost the same goal in the same game proves the power of a good corner kick tactic.

The tactical freedom of "Football Manager 2024" is not limited to this. You can refine the corner kick to play an inner arc ball or an outer arc ball, arrange players to open a tactical short corner kick near the corner flag area, or throw the football into the restricted area with a "Grenade tactic" when the foul ball is close to the restricted area. It can be said that in this generation, you can’t reproduce the volley world wave connected by two people, and no matter what set-pieces tactics you want to build, you have everything in the game.

It is worth mentioning that it may be because this generation has more options to "interfere with the opposing goalkeeper" when deploying players. In every season of "Football Manager 2024", the main goalkeeper will encounter much higher risk of injury than previous generations, and often will be absent for weeks or even more than a month because of cracked palms. Although this may weaken the team’s strength, it finally gives those substitute goalkeepers more opportunities to play.

Expert: This is the fracture price.

It’s hard to buy people, and it’s even harder to sell them.

Transfer transaction has always been the top priority in running the team, but this book has added two new mechanisms to the process of selling players.

Before selling the players, you can have a cup of tea with their agents and talk about whether any team wants to buy them.

They will tell the truth and take the initiative to help you contact the team to make an offer if there is an opportunity. And if even they don’t like the deal, you can almost give up.

Moreover, your conversation may only be regarded as a casual chat by the players, which is much milder than putting them on the transfer list or recommending them directly to other clubs, and will not make the players have any opinions on you.

If you are not satisfied with the quotation found by the broker, you can contact the middleman again and ask them to help you broker several deals, and you need to pay them an expensive intermediary fee. Fortunately, their feedback speed is usually fast enough to save you a lot of time.

These two new mechanisms seem to provide you with more means to sell players, but they don’t actually make the transfer transaction in Football Manager 2024 easier.

The reason is that this generation has the most outrageous rising speed of players’ worth, the most stingy team budget and the most savvy AI.

In the second summer transfer window of the game, Osman, who scored 16 league goals in a season, was worth 230 million euros, but even if I wanted to sell him, other teams had no money at all. Bayern and Manchester United, the only ones who have made an offer, are only willing to pay a mere 50 million.

However, the transfer budgets of the powerful teams in this play are surprisingly small. Even Newcastle, which is kept by Saudi local tyrants, has only 6 million euros left, while the middle and lower reaches, such as Bournemouth and Burnley, simply have no money left.

And according to the official, the AI ? ? coach in this game will also become more rational when buying people, not only paying attention to the player’s ability and potential (CA/PA), but also considering whether his key attributes meet the needs.

Therefore, even if Football Manager 2024 adds some auxiliary trading systems, it will only benefit marginal players who are not worth a few dollars. And if you want to sell the stars at a good price, it may be even more difficult than the previous ones.

What’s even more embarrassing is that even if your team has an oil dad in Football Manager 2024, you can’t wave money and hit people casually, because the fiscal fairness policy of this play is very strict.

Even if your transfer budget is as much as 300 million, but limited by financial fairness, you may only spend 60 million of it to buy people, and if you accidentally spend too much, you will have to sell players to even the bill or take the risk of suspension.

Of course, it does not rule out that it is caused by a BUG in the pre-experience version.

This is another problem for the coaches. At least, it is the first time for a player like me who has been playing the Football Manager series for seven years to run into a financial fairness policy in the game. Perhaps when you are thinking hard about how to balance the accounts, you can finally understand that it is not easy to manage the team’s finances in reality.

New league, new position

This generation of "Football Manager" also introduced Japan’s third-class J League for the first time.

The level of players in J1 League matches that of the British Championship, but limited by the prestige of the League, it may be difficult for you to dig up high-potential calves from Europe-even if the development of Japanese football is not what it used to be, they are not willing to bet their future on this far east island country. Moreover, the J League, which starts in spring and ends in autumn every year, is far from the European League, which usually starts in autumn. If you want to sign foreign aid, you may have to wait until the end of the whole season before they can join the team.

In addition, your experience in other leagues can basically be applied to J League. Compared with some low-level leagues, the budget of J League is quite sufficient. After all, the Kobe Victory Ship, which I expected to rank eighth when I started the file, also has a transfer budget of about 10 million euros available.

Let’s focus on the team itself again, and look at an optional position added by the full-backs in this game-Inverted Full-Backs (IFB).

This change is probably to better conform to the ever-changing football tactics. Although Barcelona had a similar tactical design in cruyff’s time, it was Guardiola who now coached Manchester City that really carried it forward.

The side and back waist will be retracted when controlling the ball, and will come to the back waist position to help the defenders create opportunities to pass the ball forward, while when there is no ball, they will return to the back line for traditional defense work. Representative players in this field are Cancelo in Manchester City, kyle walker today and Ram in Bayern.

Correspondingly, the central defender also increased the position of free agent. Similar to the flank and waist, he will insert forward to help the team pass the ball when holding the ball, and will retreat to the back line when defending. This new tactical requirement is different from the traditional "scavenger" and beckenbauer-style freemen, and it is also a play created by Guardiola for stones.

In order to cooperate with these two new positions, the players’ positions have become more intelligent now. For example, when the side and back waist push forward, you will see that the remaining three defenders also adjust their positions during the running, transforming the four-defender system into a defensive state more similar to that of the three-defender.

Of course, in fact, most players don’t really play tactics that carefully, but these brand-new designs can be regarded as providing a completely different system for those players who like to study tactics.

Other piecemeal changes

After upgrading the lighting and turf materials, the picture of "Football Manager 2024" has made gratifying progress. With the further adjustment of player animation and football trajectory in the previous work, it will also bring a lot of improvement to your watching experience.

The official comparison chart (the left is the previous work and the right is the present work)

In addition, when you created the coach, this book also added some optional accessories, including glasses, medals and face color. Of course, for me, I’m even more surprised to find that Football Manager doesn’t know when to pinch a female coach-although this is just an old function that has been around since last year.

What is limited to our play is still the pre-experience version of the game launched two weeks in advance, so there are still many outrageous bugs in it. For example, when adjusting the lineup in the game, you may find that after changing the positions of two players on the list, only an animated performance was played, but they still stayed in their original positions and did not move.

However, from last year’s experience, I believe that these bugs can basically be fixed after the game is officially released.

general comment

Perhaps Football Manager 2024 looks a little similar to the previous generation, but only when you actually experience it can you find that its changes in all aspects have changed the whole football world. It has made some outstanding upgrades to the set-piece system, added two brand-new tactical positions for the players, and also made some fine-tuning to the transfer trading system, plus some screen improvements, which is enough to make you feel that it is different from the previous experience.

Under the premise that "Football Manager 2025" has decided to switch to the Unity engine and there are many unknown factors, perhaps "Football Manager 2024" is the best simulation football game you can play under the traditional framework.

Shooting is always stuck to the face? Learn to retreat in 4 minutes, and Harden has to call you Master.

Everyone is on the wild court.

There will always be guys who are tough on defense.

As soon as you get the ball, he sticks to his face and fights.

Don’t give me any room to shoot.

Bring a set of teaching today.

Harden’s step-back shot

Everyone knows that Harden is the most powerful master in active duty.

Moreover, this trick is becoming more and more popular in wild courts and NBA.

At this time, someone will ask.

How can I get Harden to call you Master?

I’m sorry

I’m talking about this harden.

Get down to business

Harden’s retreating steps are various.

Retreat after routine and spying.

Step back after the ball is dropped, and step back after the emergency stop.

They are all moves worth learning.

As for the double retreat.

Just like the video said.

As long as you have courage, you can use it

Video source: BENCHPLAYER51

Premier League: Tottenham 1-3 brentford, Liverpool 1-1 Aston Villa, Manchester United 1-0 Bournemouth, Arsenal 0-1 Nottingham Forest.

In the early morning of May 21, 2023, Beijing time, the penultimate round of the 2022-23 season of the Premier League began to compete. Six games were held last night and this morning. After some fierce competition, the teams finally achieved different results. Among them, Tottenham lost 1-3 at home to brentford, Crystal Palace drew 2-2 away to Fulham, Liverpool drew 1-1 at home to Aston Villa, Manchester United beat Bournemouth 1-0 away, Wolves drew 1-1 at home to Everton, and Arsenal lost 0-1 away to Nottingham Forest. These games are very exciting, and every team is trying their best to win. Although some teams performed well, some teams lost. In a word, this game has brought wonderful football feasts to the fans.

In the Premier League, Arsenal once led Manchester City by eight points, but many fans still think that Manchester City will win the championship, although they need to win two more games. In the last round, after Manchester City beat Everton, Guardiola gestured with the number 2, as if to say that they needed two more games to win the championship. Next, Arsenal’s performance was really disappointing. First of all, they were defeated by Brighton at home, and then in the away game against Nottingham Forest, they gave their opponents a chance to avoid relegation and let Manchester City win the championship ahead of time. In the 18th minute of the game, Odegard passed the ball back directly to White, which led the opponent to instigate a counterattack and finally scored. Then, Arsenal collapsed completely. Both Jesus and Saca tried to make a penalty, but the referee didn’t make a penalty. Finally, navas tried his best to save the ball in the last 20 seconds of the game, but Arsenal still suffered a two-game losing streak of 0-1 away.

Liverpool performed quite well in the last four stages. They won seven games in a row and were unbeaten in nine rounds, which once filled the fans with expectations. However, just like when they competed with Manchester City for the title, stability still seems to be their shortcoming. In today’s home game against Villa, although Liverpool once tried to catch up, they could only accept the result of a draw. In the 19th minute of the game, Liverpool made a mistake in defence. konate fouled Villa and gave him a penalty. Fortunately, Watkins’ attack missed the doorframe and Liverpool escaped. However, Liverpool’s defence didn’t learn from this mistake, and only seven minutes later, they had a loophole again. Villa made many crosses in the frontcourt, and finally Luis’ oblique cross found Ramz who was unguarded. He volleyed the goal and opened the scoring for Villa. Although Liverpool kept fighting back and had some chances in the subsequent games, they failed to score goals. Until the 89th minute of the game, Liverpool passed the ball to the right continuously, and Salah broke into the restricted area with the ball. He passed the ball to the goal with the instep of his left foot, and firmino, who came off the bench, successfully volleyed it and pulled back a city for Liverpool.

At the same time that Liverpool lost, Manchester United played against Bournemouth, who had no desire for anything, and scored in just eight minutes. Eriksson picked the ball accurately on the left side of the top of the restricted area, Bournemouth’s defence made a mistake, and Senesi picked the ball between them, which was like a gift for casemiro. Casemiro took the ball and easily swept it into the net. Manchester United controlled the game with a dream start of 1-0. Although Manchester United didn’t rewrite the score again, they kept it steady until the 83rd minute, Bournemouth quickly counterattacked, Moore got a good chance to go to the right side of the penalty area and tried to push the far corner, but Degea bravely saved the goal. Manchester United successfully held on to Bournemouth’s threatening attack and finally got the last laugh with a score of 1-0.

In terms of standings, Manchester City won the championship three rounds ahead of schedule, which is the third consecutive championship and the second dynasty in Premier League history since Ferguson coached Manchester United. They have won five championships in the past six years, which is enough to prove their dominance. In the competition for the fourth place, Manchester United beat Newcastle slightly, although the goal difference was still ranked fourth. Liverpool can’t beat Villa. Although firmino grabbed a point for Liverpool at the last minute, he kept his theoretical hope for the fourth place, but this hope seems very slim. Because Newcastle and Manchester United only need one more point, they can sit firmly in the top four. In terms of relegation, Everton was unable to beat Wolves, while Nottingham Forest succeeded in relegation ahead of schedule after defeating Arsenal. Now only Leicester City, Everton and Leeds United are competing for the last place to avoid relegation. Let’s wait and see.

In the top scorer list, Norwegian player Harland, who is only 20 years old, has done well, and has scored 36 goals so far, leading the top scorer list. And England player Kane is not to be outdone, followed by 28 goals. However, it is very difficult for Kane to catch up with Harland because Tottenham only have the last round left, but he still has a chance to break through the spectacular score of 30+ goals. It is worth mentioning that Salah failed to score today, so he can’t be the fourth player to score 20+ goals this season. Mitrovic, on the other hand, has tied Watkins’ goals after his two goals, and raised the threshold of the top ten shooters to 14 goals.

Thank you for reading. I hope you have some knowledge of the latest Premier League matches. Football matches are always full of fierce competition and unexpected results, which makes people fascinated by the charm of sports. We will continue to provide you with more reports on sports events, so stay tuned.

From Juve’s abandonment to Milan’s darling, relying on Ibrahimovic’s Italian expert to explain what a system player is.

# 100 Watching Teams # As long as the system players in the green world are mentioned, it is difficult to avoid the name of Italian expert nocerino. It is no exaggeration to say that the days when he fought side by side with Ibrahimovic were so beautiful that the situation after he left Ibrahimovic was so embarrassing, as if he were a different person, which fully explained what a system player is:

Antonio nocerino was born in Naples on April 9, 1985. When he was a toddler, it happened to be the peak of Diego Maradona, the legendary Argentine superstar, who led the local Naples team to break the strong enemy repeatedly and even won the Serie A championship, which made the football atmosphere in Naples, which was already very fanatical, more and more fanatical. I don’t know how many children in Naples dreamed of becoming professional players.

It stands to reason that nocerino, who lived in such an environment as a child, should fall in love with football. But the reality is that nocerino was not interested in football as a child. However, nocerino’s father, who is a fanatical die-hard fan, not only asked his son to play football, but also became the coach of a youth football team. Nocerino entered the team coached by his father when he was about 5 years old. When nocerino was 13 years old, he left his hometown of Naples and went to Turin to join Youwen Youth Training Camp.

Under the training of Youwen Youth Training Camp, nocerino became a qualified professional player. He has an excellent professional attitude and will do his best as long as he sets foot on the court. Many players don’t want to do the dirty work. nocerino always tries to do it, and his attitude is positive. At the same time, as a midfielder, he still has a sense of goal as a striker, and he can always appear in the weak position of his opponent’s defense and send the ball to the door.

However, nocerino’s shortcomings are equally obvious. As a midfielder, although he is extremely active on the defensive end, his defensive ability has never reached the top level. Compared with Davies, Vieira and Lei Dongduo, which are recognized as top midfielders, there is a gap visible to the naked eye.

After defense, talk about attack. Although nocerino has an excellent sense of smell in front of the door, it can even make many forwards feel ashamed. However, his footwork skills are far from delicate. No matter passing or passing, it is not top-notch. It is difficult for the team to expect him to organize the attack, let alone expect him to send exquisite assists.

On the whole, nocerino is certainly good among young players of the same age. However, it is just good, far from the level of the other mountains all appear dwarfs under the sky.. It is almost impossible for a fledgling nocerino to get a foothold in the star-studded Juventus first team. Therefore, nocerino was loaned out early, and successively trained in small and medium-sized clubs such as Avilino, Genoa, Catanzaro, Crotone, Messina and Piacenza, and did not return to Juve until the summer of 2007.

As we all know, at that time, Juventus had not completely got rid of the negative impact caused by the Calciopoli incident, and it could not be compared with the Bianconeri before the Calciopoli incident, regardless of the lineup configuration or team strength. This is definitely not a good thing for Juventus. But for nocerino, who returned to Juventus, the advantages definitely outweigh the disadvantages. Because this means that the competition he faces in Juventus is far less intense than when he was a rookie.

In the following 2007-08 season, nocerino got a lot of playing time and once became the main player of Juventus. However, his performance is hard to satisfy Juve. As a midfielder, he lacked creative passing, which made Juve’s midfield, which lacked creativity at that time, worse. It’s no exaggeration to say that nocerino’s performance on the offensive end is not as good as that of teammate Zaneti, who plays in the back. And his performance on the defensive end, it is also difficult to compare with Zaneti who was born in the lower back.

Nocerino’s performance not only disappointed Juve fans, but even the famous Moggi couldn’t stand it. The controversial Juventus exploits made it clear in an interview that nocerino’s performance on the pitch was unconvincing and Juventus should give Tiago some chances. Think about it, nocerino took out what kind of performance, will let Moggi make this statement?

In the summer of 2008, one year after nocerino returned to Juve, the Bianconeri made a decision to give him up and used him as a bargaining chip. Together with a large sum of cash, Amauri was traded from Palermo.

Although nocerino has been abandoned by Juventus so quickly, the competition in the team is far less intense than Palermo of the Bianconeri, and nocerino can still guarantee the main seat. As for his performance on the court, it can only be regarded as quite satisfactory, and it is definitely not outstanding. Otherwise, Milan wouldn’t have let Palermo agree to let people go with a transfer fee of 1 million euros and half of Ricardo Ferreira’s ownership.

I’m afraid even Milan didn’t expect that the performance of new signing nocerino on the court would be so fierce. When he first arrived here, he scored an endless stream of wonderful goals, dazzling people, and soon became the darling of Milan, as can be seen from his great title of "King of Promise".

However, when nocerino was imposing, few people realized that nocerino’s good performance during his time in Milan was actually closely related to the existence of Ibrahimovic. Ibrahimovic, who was at the peak at that time, had a strong personal ability. Even under the heavy defense of his opponent, he could still create a lot of scoring opportunities for nocerino. The existence of Ibrahimovic also covers up nocerino’s lack of creativity to some extent.

In the summer of 2012, Ibrahimovic bid farewell to Milan and moved to Paris Saint-Germain. However, the Rossoneri didn’t sell nocerino, who was extremely dependent on Ibrahimovic, the first time he lost Ibrahimovic. On the contrary, they had high hopes for him, and the result can be imagined. The performance of this Italian expert is extremely disappointing and he has become a systematic player in the mouth of the media and fans.

In the days that followed, although nocerino worked so hard, he could never find the feeling of playing beside Ibrahimovic, let alone becoming the main force of Milan. Even playing for Turin could not guarantee his main seat, which was an embarrassment. This situation continued until 2020, when nocerino announced his retirement.

When two siri start to communicate, do they talk to each other?

Produced by Tiger Sniffing Technology Group

Author | Qi Jian

Editor | Chen Yifan

Head picture | |FlagStudio

"One morning, your AI assistant sent me an interview invitation, so I asked my AI assistant to handle it. The latter thing was done by two AI systems. After many rounds of dialogue between them, the date was finalized and the conference room was booked. There was no human participation in the whole process. "

This is Michael Wooldridge’s picture of the future. He is a British AI scientist and is currently a professor of computer science at Oxford University.

What will happen to our society when artificial intelligence can communicate with each other?

During the one-hour conversation, woodridge was very interested in this topic. He is one of the top scholars in the world in the research of multi-agent systems, and "collaboration between AI" is his key research direction.

In Wooldridge’s view, although artificial intelligence has become more and more like human beings and even surpassed human beings in some fields, we still have a long way to go from real artificial intelligence, whether it is AlphaGO, which defeated human beings, or ChatGPT, which answered like a stream.

When most people are immersed in the phenomenal innovation created by OpenAI, Wooldridge appears much calmer. ChatGPT shows the power of neural network, but also shows its bottleneck-it can’t solve the huge power consumption and computing power problem, and the unsolvable AI "black box" problem."Although the deep neural network can often answer our questions perfectly, we don’t really understand why it answers like this."

AI that surpasses human beings is often called "strong artificial intelligence", while AI with universal human intelligence level is called Artificial general intelligence (AGI).Wooldridge described AGI in his book "The Complete Biography of Artificial Intelligence": AGI is roughly equivalent to a computer with all the intellectual abilities possessed by an ordinary person, including the abilities of using natural language to communicate, solve problems, reason and perceive the environment, and it is at the same or higher level of intelligence as an ordinary person. The literature about AGI usually does not involve self-consciousness or self-consciousness, so AGI is considered as a weak version of weak artificial intelligence.

However, the "weak" AGI is far from the contemporary artificial intelligence research.

"ChatGPT is a successful AI product. It is very good at tasks involving language, but that’s all. We still have a long way to go from AGI. " In a conversation with Tiger Sniff, woodridge said that deep learning enables us to build some AI programs that were unimaginable a few years ago. However, these AI programs that have made extraordinary achievements are far from the magic to push AI forward towards grand dreams, and they are not the answer to the current development problems of AGI.

Michael Wooldridge is a leading figure in the field of international artificial intelligence. He is currently the dean of the School of Computer Science of Oxford University, and has devoted himself to artificial intelligence research for more than 30 years. He served as the chairman of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) from 2015 to 2017 (which is one of the top conferences in the field of artificial intelligence), and was awarded the highest honor in the British computer field-the Lovelace Medal in 2020, which is regarded as one of the three influential scholars in the British computer field.

ChatGPT is not the answer to building AGI.

Before the appearance of ChatGPT, most people thought that general artificial intelligence was very far away. In a book entitled "Intelligent Architecture" published in 2018, 23 experts in the field of AI were investigated. When answering "Which year has a 50% chance to realize general artificial intelligence", Google Engineering Director Ray Kurzweil thought it was 2029, while the time given by iRobot co-founder Rodney Brooks was 2200. The average time point predicted by all the 18 experts who answered this question is 2099.

However, in 2022, Elon Musk also expressed his views on realizing AGI in 2029. He said on Twitter, "2029 feels like a pivotal year. I’d be surprised if we don’t have AGI by then. (I feel that 2029 is a crucial year. I would be surprised if we didn’t have AGI then) "

In this regard, Gary Marcus, a well-known AI scholar, put forward five criteria to test whether AGI is realized, including: understanding movies, reading novels, being a chef, reliably carrying more than 10,000 lines of bug-free code according to natural language specifications or through interaction with non-professional users, and arbitrarily extracting proofs from mathematical literature written in natural language and converting them into symbol forms suitable for symbol verification.

Now it seems that the general big model represented by ChatGPT seems to have taken a big step towards AGI. The task of reading novels and movies seems to be just around the corner. In this regard, Professor Michael Wooldridge believes that at present, it is still difficult for human beings to achieve AGI in 2029.

Tiger sniffing: AI experts like AlphaGo have defeated human beings, but their abilities have great limitations in practical application. Today’s general big model seems to be breaking this situation. What do you think of the future development of expert AI and AGI?

Michael Wooldridge:Symbolic artificial intelligence is a mode of early artificial intelligence, that is, assuming that "intelligence" is a question about "knowledge", if you want an intelligent system, you just need to give it enough knowledge.

This model is equivalent to modeling people’s "thinking", which led the development of artificial intelligence from 1950s to the end of 1980s, and eventually evolved into an "expert system". If you want the artificial intelligence system to do something, such as translating English into Chinese, you need to master the professional knowledge of human translators first, and then use the programming language to transfer this knowledge to the computer.

This method has great limitations,He can’t solve the problem related to "perception". Perception refers to your ability to understand the world around you and explain things around you.For example, I am looking at the computer screen now. There is a bookshelf and a lamp next to me. My human intelligence can understand these things and environments, and can also describe them. However, it is very difficult to get the computer to carry out this process. This is the limitation of symbolic artificial intelligence, which performs well on the problem of knowledge accumulation, but not well on the problem of understanding.

AI recognizes cats as dogs.

Another method is artificial intelligence based on mental model. If you look at the animal’s brain or nervous system under a microscope, you will find a large number of neurons interconnected. Inspired by this huge network and neural structure, researchers tried to model the structure in the animal brain and designed a neural network similar to the animal brain. In this process, we are not modeling thinking, but modeling the brain.

Symbolic artificial intelligence of "modeling thinking" and neural network of "modeling brain" are two main artificial intelligence modes. With the support of today’s big data and computing power, the development speed of neural network is faster, and ChatGPT of OpenAI is a typical example of neural network.

The success of ChatGPT has further enhanced people’s expectations for deep neural networks, and some people even think that AGI is coming. Indeed, AGI is the goal of many artificial intelligence researchers, but I think we still have a long way to go.Although ChatGPT has a strong general ability when it comes to language issues, it is not AGI, it does not exist in the real world, and it cannot understand our world.

For example, if you start a conversation with ChatGPT now, you will go on vacation after saying one sentence. When you come back from a week’s trip, ChatGPT is still waiting patiently for you to enter the next content. It won’t realize that time has passed or what changes have taken place in the world.

Tiger Sniff: Do you think the prediction of realizing AGI in 2029 will come true?

Michael Wooldridge:Although ChatGPT can be regarded as a part of general AI to some extent, it is not the answer to building AGI. It is just a software combination that is built and optimized to perform a specific, narrow-minded task. We need more research and technological progress to realize AGI.

I am skeptical about the idea of realizing AGI in 2029. The basis of human intelligence is "being able to live in the material world and social world". For example, I can feel my coffee cup with my hands, I can have breakfast, and I can interact with anyone. But unfortunately, AI not only can’t do this, but also can’t understand the meaning of any of them. AGI has a long way to go before AI can perceive the real world.

Although the computer’s perception and understanding ability is limited, it still learns from experience and becomes an assistant to human decision-making. At present, as long as AI can solve problems like a "human assistant", what’s the point of arguing whether a computer system can "perceive and understand"?

We will eventually see a world built entirely by AI.

From driverless cars to face recognition cameras, from AI painting and AI digital people to AI writing codes and papers, it won’t take long. As long as it involves technical fields, whether it is education, science, industry, medical care or art, every industry will see the figure of artificial intelligence.

When talking about whether ChatGPT is often used, Professor Wooldridge said that ChatGPT is part of his research, so it will definitely be used frequently. However, in the process of using it, he found that ChatGPT is really a good helper for basic work and can save a lot of time in many repetitive tasks.

Tiger Sniff: Do you use ChatGPT at work? What do you think of ChatGPT Plus’s subscription mode?

Michael Wooldridge:I often use ChatGPT. I think in the next few years, ChatGPT and the general macro model may emerge thousands of different uses, and even gradually become general tools, just like web browsers and email clients.

I am also a subscriber of ChatGPT Plus. But for the price of $25, I think different people have different opinions. Every user will know whether ChatGPT is suitable for them and whether it is necessary to pay for the enhanced version only after trying it in person. For some people, they may just find it interesting, but they prefer to do things by themselves at work. For me, I find it very useful and can handle a lot of repetitive desk work. However, at present, I regard it more as part of my research.

Tiger sniffing: A new PaaS business model with big model capability as the core is being formed in today’s AI market. OpenAI’s GPT-3 gave birth to Jasper, while ChatGPT attracted Buzzfeed. Do you think a new AI ecosystem will be formed around the general big model?

Michael Wooldridge:ChatGPT has a lot of innovations at the application level, and it may soon usher in a "big explosion" of creativity.I think in a year or two, ChatGPT and similar applications will land on a large scale.Complete simple repetitive copywriting work such as text proofreading, sentence polishing, induction and summary in commercial software.

In addition, in multimodal artificial intelligence, we may see more new application scenarios. For example, a large language model combined with image recognition and image generation may play a role in the AR field. Based on the understanding of video content of large model, AI can be used to quickly generate summaries for videos and TV dramas. However, the commercialization of multimodal scenes may take some time.But we will eventually see all kinds of content generated by AI, even virtual worlds created entirely by AI.

Tiger Sniff: What conditions do you think are needed to build a company like OpenAI from scratch?

Michael Wooldridge:I think it is very difficult to start a company like OpenAI from scratch. First of all, you need huge computing resources, purchase tens of thousands of expensive top-level GPUs, and set up a supercomputer dedicated to AI. The electricity bill alone may be costly. You can also choose cloud services, but the current price of cloud computing is not cheap. Therefore, it may cost millions of dollars to train AI every time, and it needs to run for several months or even longer.

In addition, a huge amount of data is needed, which may be the data of the whole internet. How to obtain these data is also a difficult problem. Data and computing power are only the foundation, and more importantly, it is necessary to gather a group of highly sophisticated AI R&D talents.

Tiger Sniff: Which company is more powerful in AI research and development? What do you think of the technical differences between countries in AI research and development?

Michael Wooldridge:The players on this track may include internet companies, research institutions, and perhaps the government, but they are not public. At present, there are not many players who have publicly announced that they have the strength of big models, and even one hand can count them. Large technology companies are currently developing their own large-scale language models, and their technologies are relatively advanced.

So I don’t want to judge who is stronger,I don’t think there is obvious comparability between the models. The difference between them mainly lies in the rhythm of entering the market and the number of users.OpenAI’s technology is not necessarily the most advanced, but they are one year ahead in marketization, and this year’s advantage has accumulated hundreds of millions of users for him, which also makes him far ahead in user data feedback.

At present, the United States has always dominated the field of artificial intelligence. Whether it is Google or Microsoft, or even DeepMind, which was founded in the United Kingdom, now belongs to the American Alphabet (Google’s parent company).

However, in the past 40 years, China’s development in the field of AI has also been quite rapid.In the AAAI Conference (american association for artificial intelligence Conference) in 1980, there was only one paper from Hongkong, China.But today, the number of papers from China is equivalent to that from the United States.

Of course, Britain also has excellent artificial intelligence teams, but we don’t have the scale of China. We are a relatively small country, but we definitely have a world-leading research team.

This is an interesting era, and many countries have strong artificial intelligence teams.

Deep learning has entered a bottleneck.

When people discuss whether ChatGPT can replace search engines, many people think that ChatGPT’s data only covers before 2021, so it can’t get real-time data, so it can’t be competent for search tasks. But some people think that,In fact, the content of our daily search is, to a large extent, the existing knowledge before 2021. Even if the amount of data generated after that is large, the actual use demand is not high.

In fact, the amount of data used by ChatGPT is very large. Its predecessor GPT-2 model is pre-trained on 40GB of text data, while GPT-3 model is pre-trained on 45TB of text data. These pre-training data sets include various types of texts, such as news articles, novels, social media posts, etc. The large model can learn language knowledge in different fields and styles. Many practices have proved that ChatGPT is still a "doctor" who knows astronomy above and geography below, even with data before 2021.

This has also caused people to worry about the data of large-scale model training. When we want to train a larger model than ChatGPT, is the data of our world enough?futureWill the Internet be flooded with data generated by AI, thus forming a data "snake" in the process of AI training?

Ouroborosaurus is considered as "meaning infinity"

Tiger sniffing: You mentioned in your book that neural network is the most dazzling technology in machine learning. Nowadays, neural network leads us to keep moving forward in algorithms, data, especially computing power. With the progress of technology, have you seen the bottleneck of neural network development?

Michael Wooldridge:I think neural networks are facing three main challenges at present. The first is data. Tools like ChatGPT are built from a large number of corpus data, many of which come from the Internet. If you want to build a system 10 times larger than ChatGPT, you may need 10 times the amount of data.But is there so much data in our world? Where do these data come from? How to create these data?

For example, when we train a large language model, we have a lot of English data and Chinese data. However, when we want to train small languages, for example, in a small country with a population of less than 1 million like Iceland, their language data is much smaller, which will lead to the problem of insufficient data.

At the same time, when such a powerful generative AI as ChatGPT is applied on a large scale, a worrying phenomenon may occur. A lot of data on the Internet in the future may be generated by AI.When we need to use Internet data to train the next generation of AI tools, we may use data created by AI.

The next question is about computing power. If you want to train a system that is 10 times bigger than ChatGPT, you need 10 times of computing power resources.In the process of training and use, it will consume a lot of energy and produce a lot of carbon dioxide.This is also a widespread concern.

The third major challenge involves scientific progress, and we need basic scientific progress to promote the development of this technology.Just increasing data and computing resources can really push us further in the research and development of artificial intelligence, but this is not as good as the progress brought by scientific innovation. Just like learning to use fire or inventing a computer, we can really make a qualitative leap in human progress. In terms of scientific innovation, the main challenge facing deep learning in the future is how to develop more efficient neural networks.

In addition to the above three challenges, AI needs to be "interpretable". At present, human beings can’t fully understand the logic behind neural networks, and the calculation process of many problems is hidden in the "black box" of AI.Although neural networks have been able to give good answers, we don’t really understand why they give these answers.This not only hinders the research and development of neural networks, but also makes it impossible for humans to fully believe the answers provided by AI. This also includes the robustness of AI, and to use AI in this way, we need to ensure that the neural network will not collapse and get out of control in an unpredictable way.

Although the development bottleneck is in front of us, I don’t think we will see the subversion of neural networks in the short term.We don’t even know how it works yet, so it is still far from subversion.But I don’t think neural network is the answer of artificial intelligence. I think it is only one component of "complete artificial intelligence", and there must be other components, but we don’t know what they are yet.

Tiger sniffing: If computing power is one of the important factors in the development of AI, what innovative research have you seen in the research and development of AI chips?

Michael Wooldridge:Computing power is likely to be a bottleneck in the development of AI technology in the future. The energy efficiency ratio of the human brain is very high. The power of the human brain when thinking is only 20W, which is equivalent to the energy consumption of a light bulb. Compared with computers, such energy consumption can be said to be minimal.

There is a huge natural gap between AI system and natural intelligence, which needs a lot of computing power and data resources. Humans can learn more efficiently,But this "light bulb" of human beings is always only 20W, which is not a very bright light bulb.

Therefore, the challenge we face is how to make neural networks and machine learning technologies (such as ChatGPT) more efficient. At present, no matter from the point of view of software or hardware, we don’t know how to make neural network as efficient as human brain in learning, and there is still a long way to go in this regard.

When the system talks to the system directly.

Multi-agent system is an important branch of AI field, which refers to a system composed of multiple agents. These agents can interact, cooperate or compete with each other to achieve a certain goal. In multi-agent system, each agent has its own knowledge, ability and behavior, and can complete the task by communicating and cooperating with other agents.

Multi-agent system has applications in many fields, such as robot control, intelligent transportation system, power system management and so on. Its advantage is that it can realize distributed decision-making and task allocation, and improve the efficiency and robustness of the system.

Nowadays, with the blessing of AI big model, multi-agent systems and LLM in many scenarios can try to combine applications, thus greatly expanding the boundaries of AI capabilities.

Tiger sniffing: What are the points that can be combined with the AI big model and multi-agent system of the current fire?

Michael Wooldridge:My research focuses on "what happens when artificial intelligence systems communicate with each other". Most people have smartphones and AI assistants for smartphones, such as Siri, Alexa or Cortana, which we call "agents".

For example, when I want to reserve a seat in a restaurant, I will call the restaurant directly. But in the near future, Siri or other intelligent assistants can help me complete this task. Siri will call the restaurant and make a reservation on my behalf. And the idea of multi-agent system is,Why can’t Siri communicate directly with another Siri?Why not let these AI programs communicate with each other? Multi-agent system focuses on the problems involved when these AI programs communicate with each other.

The combination of multi-agent system and large model is the project we are studying. In my opinion, there is a very interesting work to be done in building a multi-agent+large language model. Can we gain higher intelligence by making large language models communicate with each other? I think this is a very interesting challenge.

For example, we need to make an appointment for a meeting now. You and I both use Siri to communicate, but you like meetings in the morning and I like meetings in the afternoon.When there is a dispute between us, how can Siri, representing you and me, work together to solve this problem?Will they negotiate? When AI not only talks to people, but also talks to other AI systems, many new problems will arise. This is the field I am studying, and I believe that multi-agent system is the future direction.

Another interesting question about multi-agents and large language models is, if AI systems only communicate with each other, do they not need human language? Can we design more effective languages for these AI systems?

However, this will lead to other problems, and we need to formulate rules for the exchange of these agents and AI programs.How should human beings?Managing an artificial intelligence society composed of AI?

Siri’s question and answer

AI can’t go to jail instead of human beings.

Michael Faraday, a British scientist, invented the electric motor in 1831, and he didn’t expect the electric chair as a torture device. Karl Benz, who obtained the automobile patent in 1886, could not have predicted that his invention would cause millions of deaths in the next century. Artificial intelligence is a universal technology: its application is only limited by our imagination.

While artificial intelligence is developing by leaps and bounds, we also need to pay attention to the potential risks and challenges that artificial intelligence may bring, such as data privacy and job loss. Therefore, while promoting the development of artificial intelligence technology, we also need to carefully consider its social and ethical impact and take corresponding measures.

If we can really build AI with human intelligence and ability, should they be regarded as equal to human beings? Should they have their own rights and freedoms? These problems need our serious consideration and discussion.

Tiger sniffing: The Chinese Internet has an interesting point: "AI can never engage in accounting or auditing. Because AI can’t go to jail. " AIGC also has such problems in copyright. AI can easily copy the painting and writing styles of human beings, and at the same time, the creation made by human beings using AI also has the problem of unclear ownership. So what do you think of the legal and moral risks of artificial intelligence?

Michael Wooldridge:The idea that AI can’t go to jail is wonderful. Some people think that AI can be their "moral agent" and be responsible for their actions. However, this idea obviously misinterprets the definition of "right and wrong" by human beings. Instead of thinking about how to create "morally responsible" AI, we should study AI in a responsible way.

AI itself cannot be responsible. Once something goes wrong with AI, those who own AI, build AI and deploy AI will be responsible. If the AI they use violates the law, or they use AI for crimes, then it must be human beings who should be sent to prison.

In addition, ChatGPT needs to strengthen supervision in privacy protection. If ChatGPT has collected information about the whole Internet, then he must have read information about each of us. For example, my social media, my books, my papers, comments made by others on social media, and even deleted information. AI may also be able to paint a portrait of everyone based on this information, thus further infringing or hurting our privacy.

At present, there are a lot of legal discussions about artificial intelligence, not just for ChatGPT. The legal issues of artificial intelligence have always existed and become increasingly important, but at present, all sectors of society are still discussing and exploring this.

I think ChatGPT or other AI technologies will become more and more common in the next few years. However, I also think we need to use it carefully to ensure that we will not lose key human skills, such as reading and writing. AI can undoubtedly help human beings to improve production efficiency and quality of life, but it cannot completely replace human thinking and creativity.

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